>> Feb 11, 2016
ELISA stands for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. It is a laboratory test that helps to check for antibodies in the body. In the test, a mixture of enzymes, blood and antigen can change colors so as to determine whether you are infected or not.
ELISA is a wet-lab test. It can be categorized as an analytic assay that is used in a biochemistry setting. The test makes use of a special solid-phase material. This material is an enzyme immunoassay (EIA).
The ELISA test is used to detect any antibodies in the blood. The laboratory technicians use this test so as to check if you have contracted any infectious diseases. The test analyzes the antibodies so as to check for the following diseases:
2. Pernicious anemia
3. Lyme disease
4. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
9. Squamous cell carcinoma
10. Varicella-zoster virus
Some of these viruses cause serious diseases. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes AIDS. This disease causes the human immune system to get weaker and the patient has to live on Anti-Retrovirals (ARVs) for the rest of their life.
The Varicella-zoster virus causes shingles and chicken pox. The ELISA test is used many times for the purpose of screening diseases. It is often the first line of analysis before the doctor requests for more tests.
How is the ELISA test performed?
ELISA testing is very straightforward. The first thing that you are required to do is to sign a consent form. The doctor should explain why this test is required for you. After you have given consent, the doctor takes a blood sample from you.
The doctor will clean your arm with antiseptic and then tie a band or tourniquet around it. This creates pressure in your veins and they will swell. After that, they will inject a needle into the veins to draw your blood. After the procedure is complete, a bandage is tied upon your arm and all will be over.
The blood sample is taken to a laboratory where there is a special petri dish waiting. In the dish, the laboratory technician has placed the antigen that causes the condition that the doctor is testing for. The laboratory technician drops some of your blood in the antigen and waits to see the results.
If you already have the condition, then your blood should have the antigens already in it. As such, if you are infected, your blood will fuse with the antigens. The laboratory technician simply adds an enzyme to the mixture to see how it will respond.
If the mixture changes color after the enzyme has been added, then the technician knows that you have the disease and how much of the antigens are in your body. This information is provided to the doctor. Once the doctor has received it, they will know which treatment is ideal for you.
This enzyme is the critical part that is needed for the purpose of the substance identification. In most cases, the ELISA test is used to identify antigens. These are identified in wet or liquid samples. The ELISA test has many uses in day to day medicine.
Dr. Mathias Suiss is a doctor. He has over fifteen years of experience in treating viral diseases. This makes him an expert on ELISA testing.